Funding is flowing into the metaverse and broader web3 endeavors. Since March 2021, sales of non-fungible tokens (“NFTs”) have made headlines – both for the eye-watering prices that some were commanding at auction and for the potential for NFTs to become a robust market, as brands appeared to be eager to market themselves and connect with consumers by way of these relatively novel pieces of technology. For Q3 in 2021, Forbes reported that the sale of NFTs had amounted to $10.7 billion in Q3 2021, a more than 8-fold increase from the previous quarter. As of January 2022, the monthly volume of NFT sales on the OpenSea marketplace hit an all-time high of $5 billion. 

Fast forward to October 2021 and Facebook, Inc.’s announcement that it would rebrand to Meta, Inc. in furtherance of a shift away from being a social media company to becoming “a metaverse company,” seemingly solidified a larger shift among companies that a blend of “real” and virtual worlds is the future. 

Against that background, brands have launched various ventures in the metaverse – from Gucci’s Garden pop-up in the Roblox metaverse (complete with virtual Gucci-branded handbags and apparel) to Nike’s “Nikeland” experience – and at the same time, rushed to file trademark applications for registration for their current (or far more frequently, their impending) uses of their trademarks on virtual goods/services and NFTs. 

All the while, cash has been flowing into the space (with more than $2 billion and $62.8 billion being invested in augmented reality ventures and virtual world projects, respectively, in 2021, per CrunchBase), and at least a one major acquisition has taken place. With so much activity underway when it comes to the metaverse, we have put together a (running) timeline of investments and M&A events to provide a broad overview of which players are raising funding, getting acquired, and what the trajectory of this segment of the market – which only appears to be gaining in steam – looks like more generally … 

May 22, 2022 – BUD Raises $37 Million in Series B

BUD has raised $37 million in a Series B round led by Sequoia Capital India, with participation from Chinese billionaire William Lei Ding’s company NetEase, Chinese VC firms ClearVue Partners, and Northern Light Venture Capital, along with existing investors GGV Capital, Qiming Venture Partners, and Source Code Capital. The Singapore-based metaverse startup will use the funds to “launch Web3 products, the next generation of the internet that runs on blockchains,” and will also introduce NFT projects to allow users to “own and trade virtual assets derived from the metaverse,” per Forbes. The found follows from BUD’s Series A round, which was completed in February.

May 10, 2022 – Arianee Raises €20 Million in Series A Round

Arianee, the leading end to end web3 solution for brands, has raised a €20 million ($21.09 million) in a Series A led round by Tiger Global. Existing investors Bpifrance, ISAI, Noia Capital and Cygni Labs, joined the round, along with Commerce Ventures, Motier Ventures and Pierre Denis, former CEO of Jimmy Choo. In a release on Tuesday, Paris-based Arianne stated that “web3 is a unique opportunity for companies and individuals to regain control over their digital presence, especially their data, [and] it’s the time for businesses to free themselves from the dependency on big platforms and lead new usage and innovation.”

An end to end web3 solution built to create, distribute and interact with NFTs, including by enabling brands to tokenize, distribute and leverage value through NFTs, Arianee says it will use the new funds to accelerate its international presence by growing its New York office, recruiting new talent and continuing the development of its products and services. The 4-year old company says its staff has tripled since its last funding round in March 2021, and it currently boasts more than 50 clients and partners (including IBM and the metaverse The Sandbox) in Europe and North America. 

May 4, 2022 – immi App Secures $50 Million Valuation Following Seed Round

Mark Cuban, singer Pitbull, Zoom founder Eric Yuan, DJ Steve Aoki, and Paris Hilton’s 11:11 Media are among the investors in a seed round for animation app immi, a round that an immi spokesman says values the company at $50 million. Immi characterizes itself as “the only real-time animation platform making full-body 3D cinema-quality characters and facial tracking technology accessible to anyone, anywhere.”

May 2, 2022 – Yuga Labs Raises $285 in Virtual Land Sale

Yuga Labs. the company behind the Bored Ape Yacht Club collection of NFTs, raised approximately $285 million worth of cryptocurrency by selling tokens that represent land in a virtual world game it says it is building. In an online sale on April 30, Yuga Labs sold NFTs called “Otherdeeds,” which can exchanged as plots of virtual land in a Bored Ape-themed online environment called “Otherside” that is expected to launch in the near future, per Reuters. The 55,000 Otherdeeds that were offered up were purchasable using the Yuga-created ApeCoin cryptocurrency

Apr 11, 2022 – Epic Games Raises $2 Billion in Funding for Metaverse Endeavor

Fortnite creator Epic Games raised $2 billion from Sony Group and Kirkbi, the family owned holding company behind the Lego Group, in a deal that values the company at $31.5 billion. Epic will use the new cash to help fund the kid-focused metaverse endeavor that it announced last month in partnership with Lego. “As we reimagine the future of entertainment and play we need partners who share our vision. We have found this in our partnership with Sony and Kirkbi,” said Tim Sweeney, the CEO and founder Epic Games, in a statement. “This investment will accelerate our work to build the metaverse and create spaces where players can have fun with friends, brands can build creative and immersive experiences and creators can build a community and thrive.”

“All three companies highly value both creators and players, and aim to create new social entertainment exploring the connection between digital and physical worlds,” the companies said in a statement.

Apr 8, 2022 – The Fabricant Raises $14 Million

Digital fashion brand The Fabricant raised $14 million in a Series A round led by Greenfield One, and with participation from Ashton Kutcher and Guy Oseary’s Sound Ventures, and Red DAO, and among others. The Netherlands-based company says that the funding will be used to support and expand its co-creation and NFT platform, The Fabricant Studio, which enables “everyday users to become creators [and] craft high-end digital fashion NFTs in collaboration with their favorite brands,” according to Maaria Bajwa, Investor at Sound Ventures.

Jascha Samadi, Partner of Greenfield One said in a statement, “Within virtual environments we are likely going to have multiple digital reflections of our physical self. The Fabricant Studio allows any creator to become their own fashion designer in the metaverse — paired with Web3 technology, digital fashion becomes unique, tradeable and accessible for the masses. The team behind The Fabricant identified this paradigm of user-generated fashion very early on, long before NFTs caught mainstream attention.”

Mar 22, 2022 – Yuga Labs Valued at $4 Billion Following Round

Yuga Labs announced that is now at valued at $4 billion, following a $450 million funding round led by Andreessen Horowitz’s crypto fund, a16z crypto. According to Reuters, “Metaverse gaming company Animoca and its subsidiary, The Sandbox, and crypto exchange FTX are also among the investors that participated in the latest round.”

Mar 18, 2022 – Universal Music Acquires BAYC NFT for $360K

Universal Music Group has acquired Bored Ape #5537, a female character NFT now known as Manager Noët All, from its former owner for $360,817. The digital asset will join the digital musical group, Kingship, that Universal’s next-gen label 10:22PM created in November 2021. The group initially consisted of four “rare Golden Fur and Bluebeam Apes” from Yuga Labs’ collection of Bored Ape Yacht Club and Mutant Ape Yacht Club NFTs. According to Reuters, “Kingship, which exists solely in digital form, will have its own website and presence on messaging platform Discord, and will eventually produce new music and give virtual performances in the metaverse.”

Mar 11, 2022 – Yuga Labs Acquires CryptoPunks, Meebits from Larva

Yuga Labs, the titan behind the Bored Ape Yacht Club and Mutant Ape Yacht Club NFTs, announced that it has “acquired the IP of the CryptoPunks and Meebits NFT collections from Larva Labs,” another giant in the digital assets space, which means that Yuga now “owns the brands, copyright in the art, and other IP rights for both collections, along with 423 CryptoPunks and 1711 Meebits.” The company says that its first move will be to grant CryptoPunks and Meebits holders “the same commercial rights that BAYC and MAYC owners enjoy” in a move that “further align[s] CryptoPunks and Meebits with the web3 ethos.” 

Mar 8, 2022 – UNXD Raises $4 Million

UNXD announced that it has raised a $4 million funding round led by Animoca Brands, Polygon Studios, and Red DAO. In addition to partnering with brands, such as Dolce & Gabbana, to create NFTs, the B2B metaverse-focused company also hosts a Polygon-based (Ethereum-compatible) digital luxury fashion marketplace, which is says is the home of “the best of digital luxury and culture.” Founded in 2021 by Nick Gonzalez and Shashi Menon, UNXD states that it will use the new cash to further scale its “team, ecosystem, and roster of partner brands.”

Mar 7, 2022 – Space Runners Raises $10 Million 

Metaverse fashion brand Space Runners has raised $10 million in a funding round co-led by Polychain and Pantera Capital, and including Accel, Jump Crypto, Animoca Brands Chairman Yat Siu, and Twitch co-founder Justin Kan. “We are designing and launching fashion items as NFT collections, which is ongoing,” Space Runners CEO Deniz Özgür stated. “But we are also launching the first phase of our fashion metaverse. Rather than just an urban cyber style, we are giving more weight to beauty and aesthetics, and we’ve been collaborating with some of the most popular fashion agencies in New York.”

Mar 7, 2022 – Immutable Raises $200 Million

Immutable raised $200 million from investors led by Singapore’s Temasek, valuing the Australian NFT startup at $2.5 billion, the company announced. Investors include Mirae Asset, ParaFi Capital, Declaration Partners, and Tencent Holdings, among others.

Mar 3, 2022 – Nifty League Raises $5 Million in Seed Round

Nifty League, a leading NFT gaming platform, today announced the close of a $5 million seed investment round led by New York-based private investment firm RSE Ventures, along with Spartan Group, Lerer Hippeau, VaynerFund, Private Ventures Group, DraftKings Co-founder Matthew Kalish, and Gallery Media Group CEO Ryan Harwood, among others. Launched in September 2021, Nifty League is bringing “competitive gaming to Web3 – moving away from play-to-earn into a new era of play-and-earn by offering a fun and engaging gaming ecosystem.” 

Feb 25, 2022 – CollectID Raises $3.5 Million in Seed Round

CollectID closed a $3.5 million seed funding round led by SeventySix Capital and Hellen’s Rock. The Swiss-based startup combines NFT technology, backed by an immutably secure blockchain, through a tamper-proof NFC tag to provide a secure and unique identity for each product that can be applied to the majority of physical objects including clothes, accessories, shoes, watches.

Feb 22, 2022 – Metamall Raises $400K in Latest Round

Metamall, a metaverse start-up that allows buyers to own, build and develop virtual real estate has closed its Initial Dex Offering – or “IDO” – to raise $400k with the supply of 80 million tokens. With this round and previous funding (Metamall previously raised $4.6 million in its seed, strategic and private rounds and more than $2 million through NFT sales), Metamall announced that it is the first retail commerce-themed metaverse platform in the world to raise funding more than $7 million from private and public investors.

Feb 21, 2022 – Jambo Raises $7.5 Million in Seed Round

Jambo raised $7.5 million in seed funding in furtherance of Africa’s most notable metaverse venture. The Congo-based startup is angling to build Africa’s web3 user acquisition portal through “learn, play, earn” and democratizing access to crypto-based income-generation opportunities. According to TechCrunch, “Experts say Africa is poised to be disrupted by web3 in a similar fashion that has seen Southeast Asia become one of the best markets for web3.”

Feb 14, 2022 – BUD Raises $15 Million in Series A+

BUD raised $15 million funding in a Series A+ round. Founded by former Snap engineers Shawn Lin and Risa Feng in 2019, BUD allows users to create customizable 3D experiences and interact with others by way of its app. 

Feb 13, 2022 – BNV.ME Raises $4 Million to “Elevate NFT Experiences in the Metaverse”

Brand New Vision Ltd, the company behind BNV.ME, the leading platform taking fashion into Web3.0 through 3D Product Creation, NFT sales, and Future Wearability, completed a $4 million Series A funding round led by Animoca Brands. In a statement, BNV.ME said that the funding will enable it to further expand its capabilities for creating elevated NFT experiences across the metaverse offerings that already exist and those that are under development, as well as growing its visibility and presence across the worlds of fashion, gaming, and crypto communities.

Feb 3, 2022 – nfinite Raises $15 million in Series A

Next-generation visualization and e-commerce merchandising provider nfinite raised $15 million in Series A funding led by US Venture Partners. New York-based nfinite stated that the funding would be used to accelerate development of its SaaS 3D visualization platform and to scale the company’s operations in North America. 

Dec 13, 2021 – Nike Acquires RTFKT

NIKE, Inc. announced that it would acquire RTFKT, “a leading brand that leverages cutting edge innovation to deliver next generation collectibles that merge culture and gaming.” Nike President and CEO John Donahoe said in a statement that the acquisition is “another step that accelerates Nike’s digital transformation and allows us to serve athletes and creators at the intersection of sport, creativity, gaming and culture,” and one that will help to “extend Nike’s digital footprint and capabilities.” Terms of the deal were not announced. 

Nov 22, 2021 – Niantic Raises $300 Million to Build “Real-World Metaverse”

Niantic, the augmented reality platform behind Pokémon GO, raised $300 million from Coatue, valuing the company at $9 billion. The San Francisco-based startup announced that it will use the funding to build the “real-world metaverse.”

Nov 5, 2021 – VNTANA Brings Funding to $12.5 Million

VNTANA, the industry leader in 3D Content Management Software, closed its latest round of funding, with investment from Mark Cuban, former Oculus CEO Brendan Iribe, Flexport and Anorak Ventures, among others, bringing its total funding to $12.5 million in total. VNTANA says that its tech “makes it easy for brands across fashion, footwear, furniture, tools, sporting goods, and more” – including Ugg-owner Deckers Brands, Staud and Diesel – “to share and embed 3D and AR for sales and marketing use.” 

Oct 13, 2021 – Stage11 Raises a €5 Million Seed Round

Immersive music experience startup Stage11 raised a 5 million euro seed round led by Otium Capital, a European venture capital fund, backed up by founder and CEO, Jonathan Belolo. Stage11 stated that it is “setting out to redefine the interactive music experience by combining gaming, mixed reality, and digital collectibles,” including by building “a new creative canvas for artists, allowing them to invite fans to live, play, and create inside their performances and musical worlds.” 

May 5, 2021 – RTFKT Raises $8 Million 

RTFKT raised $8 million in a round led by venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz, and that includes Riot Games co-founder Marc Merrill, Behance co-founder Scott Belsky, artist Fewocious, and former LVMH Chief Digital Officer Ian Rogers, among others, in furtherance of its quest to “empower the future of fashion.” The round valued the company – which was not even 2 years old at the time – at $33.3 million.

Apr 21, 2021 – The Fabricant Announces Funding Round

Leading virtual fashion firm The Fabricant announced the close of an undisclosed funding round in furtherance of its aim to “create tools and products that transform the fashion industry into a fully digital existence in both production and consumption, while democratizing fashion creation into a collaborative process utilizing 3D technology and the creativity of the consumer, accessible to everyone.” Participants in the round included 4impact, Borski Fund and Slingshot.

A growing number of M&A deals and investment rounds are bringing together some of the biggest names in the fashion and luxury space. In November, a $1.15 billion deal came to light, bringing together Cartier’s parent company Richemont, Chinese e-commerce titan Alibaba, and fashion retail platform Farfetch. The headline-making transaction followed from reports that a “mega deal” was in the making. In addition to proving noteworthy because it brought together three very big names in the fashion sphere in furtherance of an effort that largely focuses on “providing luxury brands with enhanced access to the China market,” the alliance is striking, as it has given rise to speculation about a potential consolidation, with at least some analysts wondering aloud whether the $1.15 billion tie-up could be “a preamble” a larger M&A effort, namely, Richemont merging Yoox Net-a-Porter with Farfetch or the Swiss conglomerate selling the fashion e-commerce pioneer to Alibaba. 

Around the same time, LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton decided to make good on an acquisition effort of its own, the one it had also been quietly (and then not so quietly) working towards: Tiffany & Co. Just a matter of days before the Farfetch-Alibaba-YNAP deal was confirmed, LVMH and Tiffany revealed that they had managed to put their rival lawsuits to bed and come to agreeable terms under which the famed New York-based jewelry stalwart could be brought under the ownership umbrella of the Paris-based luxury goods titan. In exchange for $15.8 billion, LVMH would acquire all shares in the formerly publicly-traded Tiffany & Co.

Both instances come as consolidation has been top of mind in the luxury space, where the biggest groups, such as Louis Vuitton-owner LVMH and Gucci’s parent company Kering, have amassed sizable rosters of brands over the past several decades by way of various fashion and luxury-centric M&A transactions, thereby, enabling them to benefit from sheer size and scale, while making it more difficult for independently-owned brands to compete. The havoc wreaked on brands’ balance sheets by the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting shift online (and the expenses that come with doing that and doing it well) is expected to accelerate that existing fashion industry M&A activity even further. 

“With the financial difficulties [brought about by COVID] in mind, many players, and in particular the smallest, will become more-affordable M&A targets,” according to Isabelle Chaboud, an Associate Professor in the Finance, Accounting and Law Department of Grenoble Ecole de Management. “The most financially solid players – such as LVMH, Kering or Chanel – will no doubt have the option of buying out competitors, subcontractors and even suppliers.”

A Timeline of Transactions

With the foregoing in mind, here is a running timeline of the most recent fashion and luxury-focused M&A and investments dating back to LVMH’s headline-making deal with Tiffany & Co. … 

May 17, 2022 – B2B Fashion Supply Chain Marketplace Fashinza Raises $100M

Fashinza has raised $100 million in a Series B round that co-led by Prosus Ventures and Westbridge with participation from Accel, and Elevation, among others, valuing the B2B fashion marketplace at $300 billion valuation. The Delhi, India-based company describes itself as the “fastest apparel manufacturing platform” that “solves apparel/fashion supply chain challenges by connecting fashion brands to experienced manufacturers.”

The round brings Fashinza’s total funds raised to $135 million, which CEO Pawan Gupta says the company will use to “refine the company’s supply chain technology and expand into new markets, including raw materials procurement.”

May 4, 2022 – Kering Invests in Alternative Leather Startup VitroLabs

Gucci-owner Kering is one of the investors in a $46 million Series A round raised by VitroLabs, along with actor Leonardo DiCaprio, agriculture-focused VC Agronomics, Bestseller’s Invest FWD innovation arm, Khosla Ventures, New Agrarian, and Regeneration VC, among others. California-based VitroLabs, which makes cellular-cultivated leather that “replicates the structure of animal hides,” will use the funding to scale-up its operations and expects to start pilot manufacturing this spring.

“At Kering, a chapter/pillar of our sustainability roadmap is dedicated to sustainable innovation and actively looking for alternative materials that can reduce our environmental impact over the long term is part of the solutions we have been exploring for years. We believe that innovation is key to addressing the sustainability challenges that the luxury industry is facing, which is why we are very interested in the potential of biomaterials such as cultivated leather,” Marie-Claire Daveu, Chief Sustainability and Institutional Affairs Officer at Kering, said in connection with the finding announcement.

May 2, 2022 – G-III to Acquire Remaining 81 Percent Stake in Karl Lagerfeld Label

DKNY and Sonia Rykiel-owner G-III Apparel Group will acquire the outstanding 81 percent stake in the late Karl Lagerfeld’s eponymous label for $210 million in cash in a deal that will make it the sole owner of the brand. G-III, which first acquired a 19 percent stake in the brand in 2016 after launching a joint venture in 2015, says that it expects that retail sales for the Karl Lagerfeld label could eventually surpass $2 billion.

Apr. 20, 2022 – Destree Raises Series A from Beyonce, Rihanna, Sequoia Capital China

Destree, the Paris-based fashion brand founded by Géraldine Guyot and Laetitia Lumbroso, announced a Series A round that includes big-name investors, such as venture capital firm Sequoia Capital China, Beyoncé, Rihanna, Reese Witherspoon, Gisele Bündchen, Gabriela Hearst, Carmen Busquets, Jessica Alba, Glossier founder Emily Weiss, and Amy Griffin of G9 Ventures. Financial terms were not disclosed, per WWD, but it is understood Guyot and Lumbroso retain majority control of the business, founded in 2016. WWD reports that the funding will be used to “almost double the size of their small team; open Destree’s first freestanding stores; expand into new or underdeveloped markets like the Middle East, China, Japan and the U.S., and supercharge e-commerce operations and digital-native marketing.”

Apr. 5, 2022 – Farfetch Takes Stake in Neiman Marcus Group

Farfetch announced that it will make “a minority common equity investment of up to $200 million” in Neiman Marcus Group in furtherance of a global strategic partnership.” According to a statement from the two retailers, “The partnership builds on Farfetch’s Luxury New Retail vision and advances Neiman Marcus Groups’ pioneering strategy to revolutionize integrated luxury retail, with an initial focus on re-platforming the Bergdorf Goodman website and mobile application to expand its global capabilities and services.” Neiman Marcus says that it will use the proceeds to “further accelerate growth and innovation through investments in technology and digital capabilities.”

In a note about the deal, Bernstein analyst Luca Solca stated that it provides Farfetch “a strategic opportunity to stand out among service providers and to benefit from the strength of the local US customers,” namely by way of its and its Luxury New Retail and Farfetch Platform Solutions, its suite of commerce solutions and retail technology for luxury brands and retailers.

Mar. 14, 2022 – Kering to Bolster Eyewear Unit with Maui Jim

Kering Eyewear has signed an agreement to acquire Maui Jim, Inc., the French luxury goods conglomerate revealed without disclosing the terms of the deal. On the heels of Kering snapping up Danish eyewear brand LINDBERG in July 2021, the group says that “this second key acquisition is also a major step for Kering Eyewear, which has now become unparalleled in its market segment, further validating the strategy that laid behind its creation by Kering in 2014.” The transaction is subject to the clearance by the relevant competition authorities and is expected to be completed in the second half of 2022.

Jan. 28, 2022 – Farfetch to Acquire Violet Grey

Farfetch will acquire beauty brand Violet Grey for an undisclosed sum, the e-commerce platform announced. In a nod to larger implications of the deal, Violet Grey founder Cassandra Grey will act as chairwoman for the brand, while also becoming Farfetch’s global beauty advisor and the co-founder of NGG Beauty, a division of Farfetch’s New Guards Group, with both entities seemingly ramping up their intentions to launch into the beauty space. The launch of a beauty category on the Farfetch marketplace is scheduled for later in the year.

“Farfetch has a really strong track record for acquiring really special, founder-led brands and celebrating and protecting that kind of brand equity,” Grey said in statement inn connection with the confirmation of the deal.

Jan. 27, 2022 – Kim Kardashian’s SKIMS Raises $240 Million

Kim Kardashian’s shapewear label SKIMS raised $240 million in an unknown-series round that was led by hedge fund Lone Pine Capital and that also included D1 Capital Partners, along with existing investors Thrive Capital, Natalie Massenet’s Imaginary Ventures, and Alliance Consumer Growth. The round doubles the barely three-year-old brand at $3.2 billion, up from $1.6 billion in April 2021. Kardashian and SKIMS CEO Jens Grede will retain a controlling stake in the company after the investment, according to Bloomberg.

Jan. 18, 2022 – LVMH Luxury Ventures Invests in Aimé Leon Dore

LVMH’s Luxury Ventures investment vehicle has taken a minority stake in budding New York-based fashion brand Aimé Leon Dore. While the terms of the investment – which appears as though it might be the latest deal to have been brokered by Alexandre Arnault – have not been disclosed, LVMH typically Luxury Ventures typically targets investments ranging from €2 million to €15 million. In a statement on Tuesday, Aimé Leon Dore founder Teddy Santis stated, “LVMH’s vast network of global leaders across the industry and its rich history in growing exceptional storied brands offers a truly unique partnership opportunity to fuel the next chapter of growth for Aimé Leon Dore.”

Jan. 13, 2022 – LVMH Luxury Ventures Takes a Stake in Heat

Mystery boxes are the latest target of investment for LVMH’s Luxury Ventures, with the French luxury goods conglomerate’s fund among the parties to a $5 million round raised by Heat. OTB Group board member and BVX CEO Stefano Rosso, Singapore-headquartered VC firm Antler, L Catterton partner Michael Mitterlehner, Spotify Director of Global Growth Sven Ahrens, and the Hermès family are some of the other investors in London-based Heat’s seed round, the funds from which will be used to “implement gamification, AI-driven personalization, and interactive drops, all while driving sustainability,” the company revealed.

Nov. 22, 2021 – CVC Capital, HPS Investment Take Stake in Authentic Brands

Private equity firms CVC Capital Partners and HPS Investment Partners have acquired “significant equity stakes” in Authentic Brands Group, putting a a $12.7 billion enterprise value on the company and prompting it to postpone a previously-planned planned initial public offering until at least 2023. In a statement, ABG said that “since its founding in 2010, [it] has experienced significant growth by implementing a proven playbook that connects strong brands with best-in-class licensees and a network of partners to optimize value in the marketplace.” Among the 30 or so brands under its ownership umbrella are Forever 21, Barneys New York, Aeropostale, Brooks Brothers, and Vision Street Wear.

Sept. 23, 2021 – G-III to Acquire Sonia Rykiel

G-III Apparel Group revealed that it has entered into an M&A agreement to purchase Sonia Rykiel, with plans to accelerate the relaunch of the French fashion brand primarily in Europe, for the fall of 2022, with collections across multiple categories. The transaction, which comes less than two years after brothers Eric and Michael Dayan successfully bid to acquire all of the bankrupt brand’s assets via a court-administered process. (Those assets included the brand’s intellectual property rights (namely, its various global trademark registrations, and decades of archives and product prototypes); the commercial leases for its brick-and-mortar outposts in France – from its Saint Germain flagship to a glitzy boutique in Cannes, among others; and its remaining stock of garments and accessories.)

The fashion-centric M&A deal is expected to close by the end of October 2021.

Aug. 24, 2021 – Chanel Takes Majority Stake in Paima

Chanel has taken a majority stake in Italian knitwear company Paima, a move that falls in line with a larger pattern of luxury giants looking gain greater control over their supply chains by bringing key third-party companies under their own roofs. “This decision has been motivated by converging interests,” Chanel asserted in a statement, noting that while Paima, which has been a supplier for the French fashion brand for 25 years, “has seen its development accelerate in recent years, it seemed appropriate to have a solid partner to help it grow [further] and invest.” More than that, Chanel revealed that the investment “provides a more sustainable collaboration framework by continuing an already established relationship.”

Aug. 12, 2021 – Authentic Brands Group Buys Reebok

Adidas is selling its Reebok brand to Authentic Brands Groups for up to 2.1 billion euros ($2.46 billion), with the German sporting wear group looking to “focus on its core brand after the U.S. fitness label failed to live up to expectations,” per Reuters. Authentic Brand, which filed its preliminary IPO documentation in July, has been on a buying streak in the past few years, with the brand developer buying up an array of fashion and apparel companies, ranging from Juicy Couture and Judith Leiber to Jones New York, Volcom, and Aeropostale.

Jul. 28, 2021 – Aeffe Takes Full Control of Moschino 

Italian fashion and luxury goods group Aeffe S.p.A. acquired the remaining 30 percent of Moschino in an M&A deal that will see it pay 66.6 million euros ($78.51 million), and bring its holding of the company to 100 percent and the valuation of the Jeremy Scott-designed brand to $261.7 million. Aeffe also owns Alberta Ferretti, Philosophy by Lorenzo Serafini and Pollini.

In a statement, Aeffe Executive Chairman Massimo Ferretti said, “The operation we have just concluded has long been considered an important step in our medium-long term growth strategy. With the full control over MOSCHINO brand, we are now in the best conditions to manage all activities related to the brand’s value chain, from product to quality and with positive effects on image, distribution and communication.”

Jul. 20, 2021 – LVMH Takes Majority Stake in Off-White

LVMH announced on Tuesday that it is taking a majority stake in Off-White, the upscale fashion/streetwear brand that Virgil Abloh launched in 2013 via a new M&A deal. In a statement, LVMH revealed that in addition to taking a 60 percent stake in Off-White, it has entered into a new “arrangement” with Abloh to “jointly pursue new projects across luxury categories.” 

Jul. 18, 2021 – L Catterton Takes Majority Stake in Etro

Italian fashion brand Etro announced on July 18 that it entered into a binding M&A agreement to partner with L Catterton. Under the terms of the agreement, LVMH-affiliated L Catterton Europe will acquire a majority stake in Etro, while the Etro family will retain a significant minority. Etro Founder Gerolamo Etro will be appointed as Chairman of the company.

Jul. 12, 2021 – LVMH Takes Minority Stake in Phoebe Philo

Phoebe Philo announced that she is launching her own label after spending three and a half years out of the spotlight following her 10-year tenure with Celine, and revealed that LVMH has taken a minority stake in her soon-to-launch label. The size of LVMH’s minority position and the terms of the deal have not been disclosed.

Jul. 11, 2021 – Nordstrom Takes Stake in Four ASOS Brands

Nordstrom announced that it has acquired a minority stake in four apparel brands owned by British fashion group ASOS. Topshop, Topman, Miss Selfridge and the activewear label HIIT, which ASOS acquired from Arcadia Group for £295 million ($407.21 million) in February 2021, will enable the U.S. department store chain to target millennial and Gen-Z consumers. Financial terms of the M&A deal have not been disclosed.

Jul. 8, 2021 – Kering Acquires LINDBERG

Kering is bolstering its eyewear division by way of a deal in which Kering Eyewear will acquire 100 percent of the share capital of LINDBERG. The acquisition is “an important milestone in the successful expansion of Kering Eyewear and perfectly fits with its development strategy,” according to Kering, which launched its eyewear division in 2014, a venture that it says consists of “an innovative business model that has enabled [it] to reach a critical size in the market with close to €600 million wholesale external revenues” as of FY2019.

Jul. 7, 2021 – Glossier Raises $80 Million in Latest Round

Glossier announced that it has raised $80 million in Series E funding. The round, which was led by Lone Pine Capital with participation from existing investors Forerunner Ventures, Index Ventures, IVP, Sequoia Capital, and Thrive Capital, values the millennial-focused beauty company at $1.8 billion.

Jun. 30, 2021 – Richemont Acquires Delvaux

Cartier owner Richemont announced on Wednesday that it has acquired a 100 percent stake in Belgian luxury leather goods brand Delvaux in “a private transaction.” Founded in 1829, Richemont says that Delvaux is the oldest luxury leather goods Maison in the world. The Swiss conglomerate revealed that the transaction has “no material financial impact on [its] consolidated net assets or operating result for the year ending March 31, 2022,” and that Delvaux’s revenues will be reported within its “Other” business area.

The M&A deal appears to be a sign that Richemont is looking to bolster its softer luxury (and maybe even fashion) offerings, having built its name in the hard luxury (i.e., jewelry and watches) segment of the market.

Jun. 24, 2021 – GOAT Nabs $3.7 Billion Valuation with New Round

Online sneaker and apparel marketplace GOAT Group has raised $195 million in a new funding round, which has “more than doubled its valuation to $3.7 billion,” per Reuters. The Los Angeles-based company, which was founded in 2015, boasts some 30 million customers across 170 countries, and “posted gross merchandise value, which represents the total volume of goods sold, of $2 billion over the past year as sales of sneakers and apparel surged.”

The buzzy platform made headlines early this year when it announced that it had welcomed a “strategic investment” from Groupe Artemis – the controlling shareholder of Gucci, Balenciaga, Saint Laurent, and Bottega Veneta’s parent company Kering – as it “continues its expansion in fashion apparel and new categories.” (It also garnered attention in connection with a settlement in the trademark lawsuit filed against it by London-based brand Goat Fashion.)

Jun. 24, 2021 – Kering Takes Stake in Luxury Rental Co. Cocoon

Kering has taken an undisclosed stake in a luxury rental company. In a statement on Thursday, Kering announced that it has invested in Cocoon, a London-based startup that specializes in facilitating rentals for luxury handbags – including offerings from upwards of 30 brands, such as Kering-owned Gucci, Balenciaga, and Bottega Veneta – with the investment coming as part of a larger $3.5 million round that also included participation from resale platform Depop’s founder Simon Beckerman, among others. Kering’s chief client and digital officer Gregory Boutte said the deal is part of a larger strategy by the conglomerate to invest in innovative young companies. 

Jun. 22, 2021 – Prada, Zegna Take Stakes in Cashmere Supplier

Prada has partnered with fellow Italian fashion company Ermenegildo Zegna Group to acquire a controlling stake in Italian cashmere producer Filati Biagioli Modesto in furtherance of a quest to “secure a domestic supply chain and luxury-goods manufacturing expertise.” The two big-name fashion entities will each take a 40 percent stake in the Montale-based supplier, which is known for its Italian cashmere and “noble yarns,” while the Biagioli family will hold on to 15 percent of the company, and newly-appointed CEO Renato Cotto – who recently served as a director at LVMH’s Loro Piana – will assume a 5 percent holding. 

Jun. 18, 2021 – LVMH Takes Full Control of Pucci

LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton acquired the outstanding 33 percent stake in Emilio Pucci just over two decades after it paid an undisclosed sum for a 67 percent ownership stake in the Italian fashion house in 2000. In a statement on Friday, as first reported by WWD, Toni Belloni, LVMH’s group managing director thanked the Pucci family, and in particular, Laudomia Pucci, the daughter of founder Emilio Pucci, who has served as the Deputy Chairman and Image Director of the brand, “for their friendship and collaboration over the years.” In conjunction with the deal, Ms. Pucci will step down from her current role and “dedicate herself to the archives and promoting the heritage of her late father.”

Jun. 10, 2021 – Fosun Fashion Group Nabs Sergio Rossi in M&A Deal

In a statement on June 10, Fosun Fashion Group revealed that it has signed a M&A agreement to acquire 100 percent of Sergio Rossi S.p.A from from Absolute Luxury Holding S.r.l., an independently-managed investment subsidiary of Investindustrial V L.P., for an undisclosed sum. The Shanghai-headquartered group stated that the acquisition will “further enrich FFG’s luxury brand portfolio, which currently includes Lanvin, Wolford, Caruso and St. John Knits, complementing the group’s core competency through luxury accessories.”

Jun. 8, 2021 – Sequoia Takes Stake in SSENSE

SSENSE announced that it has sold an undisclosed stake in the company to California-based venture capital firm Sequoia Capital in a M&A deal that values the fashion e-commerce retailer at 5 billion CAD ($4.13 billion). As for what the investment might entail, it appears that the high fashion-focused retailer has set its sights on expansion in China, as Angelica Cheung, the former editor-in-chief of Vogue China, who joined Sequoia Capital China as a venture partner in February, will join the SSENSE’s board in connection with the deal.

Apr. 22, 2021 – LVMH Boosts Stake in Tod’s

Tod’s revealed that LVMH will boost its exist stake in Tod’s to 10 percent by way of a new 6.8 percent increase. “A source close to the matter said the French giant does not expect to raise its stake further for now,” Reuters reported, noting that Tod’s founder and chairman Diego Della Valle has been a member of LVMH’s board of directors since 2002. While Della Valle has repeatedly denied longstanding chatter about a takeover, he stated on Thursday that “this may represent an excellent reason to consider further opportunities to be taken in the future ahead,” referring to LVMH’s stake increase.

Mar. 25, 2021 – Made in Italy Fund acquires Dondup

Made in Italy Fund has acquired Milan-based fashion brand Dondup from fellow private equity firm L Catterton for an undisclosed sum. “The fund said it aims at creating a fashion conglomerate with Dondup and other fashion brands it owns – 120%Lino, known for its linen clothes, and jewellery and accessories maker Rosantica – and expanding their foothold in Europe and the United States, Reuters reported. The firm also maintains a majority stake in 6-year old Italian streetwear label GCDS, which it acquired in November 2020.

Mar. 8, 2021 – Ferrari owner Exor takes 24% stake in Louboutin

Exor Group – the $30 billion Netherlands-incorporated investment group run by the Italian Agnelli family and the largest shareholder in Italian automaker Ferrari – announced that it will take a 24 percent stake in the independently-owned Louboutin in exchange for 541 million euros ($640 million), a deal that values the 30-year old Paris-based footwear brand at $2.3 billion euros ($2.73 billion) and sets it up for expansion, particularly in China.

Mar. 5, 2021 – Margiela-owner OTB acquires Jil Sander

Japanese apparel group Onward Holdings announced that it will sell fashion brand Jil Sander to Renzo Rosso’s luxury group, OTB, the parent of Diesel, Maison Margiela, Marni, Amiri, and Viktor & Rolf. The financial figures associated with the M&A deal remain undisclosed.

Mar. 1, 2021 – Kering leads $216 million Vesitaire round

Kering and American investment firm Tiger Global Management are leading a new funding round that sees secondhand marketplace Vestiaire Collective bring in $216 million in new funding, along with existing investors, including its CEO Max Bittner, Vogue’s parent company Condé Nast, and the Eurazeo Group, among others. The deal gives Paris-based Vestiaire “unicorn status” – i.e., puts a $1 billion-plus value on the privately-held company – and “ideally positions it for its next cycle of accelerated growth.” 

Dec. 9, 2020 – Exor Group acquires Shang Xia

Ferrari owner Exor Group announced that it will invest “around €80 million [$96.9 million] in Chinese brand Shang Xia via a reserved capital increase that will result in it becoming the company’s majority shareholder.” Exor noted that Hermès – which “has accompanied Shang Xia successfully throughout the initial phase of its development – will remain as an important shareholder alongside Exor and [founder] Jiang Qiong Er.”

Dec. 7, 2020 – Moncler acquires Stone Island

Moncler announced that it will acquire Italian fashion label Stone Island for $1.4 billion. The Milan-headquartered luxury outerwear company will “purchase 70 percent of Stone Island’s parent company SPW from Chief Executive Officer Carlo Rivetti and other members of his family, [and] then buy the remaining 30 percent from Singapore’s state investor Temasek” in furtherance of a two-step transaction. 

Nov. 9, 2020 – VF Corp. acquires Supreme for $2.1 billion

Three years after Supreme sold off a reported 50 percent stake to private equity giant Carlyle Group, VF Corp revealed that it will pay $2.1 billion to buy popular streetwear brand. The deal – which was formally completed on December 28, 2020 – saw VF Corp. take full ownership of Supreme, with current Supreme investors Carlyle Group and New York-based private equity firm Goode Partners agreeing to sell their stakes in the New York-based brand. 

Nov. 5, 2020 – Alibaba, Richemont invest $1.1 billion in Farfetch

Alibaba Group Holding and Richemont announced that they will invest $1.1 billion in online luxury fashion retailer Farfetch and its new marketplace in China. At the same time, Artemis – an investment vehicle tied to Gucci owner Kering – simultaneously announced that it would increase its stake in Farfetch with a $50 million injection of cash in exchange for Farfetch’s Class A ordinary shares. 

Oct. 29, 2020 – LVMH and Tiffany & Co. agree to $15.8 billion M&A

LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton and Tiffany & Co. managed to salvage their meger deal, with the French luxury goods conglomerate agreeing to pay a few dollars less per share to acquire the New York-based jewelry company. In a statement, the parties confirmed that LVMH will pay $131.5 per Tiffany share, down from the $135/share price tag they initially agreed to in November 2019 before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.

*This article was initially published on March 1, 2021, and has been updated accordingly.

Secondary fashion sales are booming, with the global market for pre-owned apparel generating a whopping $40 billion per year, according to Boston Consulting Group, and growing at a rate of 15 percent per annum, as consumers increasingly tap into the online consignment segment, new market entrants rush to meet burgeoning demand, and existing players look to differentiate themselves and their value propositions. Against this background, funding keeps pouring into the secondary market – whether it be funneled into new resale platforms or already-established ones that are looking to expand their operations, including in an international capacity – and all the while, given the increasingly crowded nature of the market, consolidation is starting to come into effect, with existing entities joining forces to grab a bigger share of the market. 

With so much activity underway on the resale and rental space, we have put together a (running) timeline of investments and M&A events to provide a broad overview of which players are raising funds, which are merging together, and what the trajectory of this segment of the market – which only appears to be gaining in steam – looks like more generally … 

April 2022 – Sneaker Marketplace SoldOut Raises $33 Million

Korean sneaker marketplace SoldOut raised $33 million in a funding round led led by Korea online retail titan Musina and FinTech Dunamu. The nearly 2-year-old resale company will use the funds to fuel its expand into new product categories and build out its customer experience, including by upgrading its platform and opening a second inspection center in Seoul.

March 2022 – Vestiaire Acquires Tradesy

French resale company Vestiaire Collective announced its acquisition of Tradesy, “a U.S. pioneer in the fashion resale industry,” on Tuesday. Terms of the deal were not disclosed, but the companies said in a statement that by joining forces, they will “significantly increase the size and reach of their peer-to-peer marketplaces, to the direct benefit of their sellers and buyers. The combined company will boast a membership community of 23 million, a catalog of 5 million items and a Gross Merchandise Value exceeding $1 billion. Customers of both Vestiaire Collective and Tradesy will significantly benefit from the companies’ alliance.”

December 2021 – Rebag Raises $35 Million in Series E

Rebag has raised $35 million in funding a Series E round, bringing the 6-year-old resale company’s total funding to $103 million. “Following a strong year driven by technological advances and category expansion,” Rebag says that the round – which was led by private equity firm Novator with participation from existing investors, such as General Catalyst – “positions [it] for its next cycle of innovation and accelerated growth,” and that the investment funds will be used to further build upon Comprehensive Luxury Appraisal Index for Resale, its proprietary software aimed at bringing transparency to the luxury resale industry. The company says it will also use the round to scale its tech-enabled brick-and-mortar business. 

December 2021 – Farfetch Acquires LUXCLUSIF

Fashion e-commerce platform Farfetch announced on December 9 that it has acquired resale platform LUXCLUSIF, including the company’s technology platform, for an undisclosed sum. This deal will allow FARFETCH to “significantly accelerate its resale capabilities through the development of key technology and service features such as automated pricing, and faster geographic and category expansion of its resale service, FARFETCH Second Life,” the London-based company stated.

Founded in 2013, LUXCLUSIF is a B2B service provider with “a successful turnkey solution enabling the acquisition, authentication and sale of second hand luxury goods to – and from – auctions, retailers, e-commerce platforms, and stores worldwide,” the companies said in a statement. “Together, FARFETCH and LUXCLUSIF can leverage these capabilities and positioning to become the global platform for pre-owned luxury for both customers and industry partners.”

November 2021 – eBay Acquires Sneaker Con’s Authentication Arm

eBay announced on November 29 that it has entered into a definitive agreement with Sneaker Con Digital under which it has acquired Sneaker Con’s authentication business, a leading sneaker authenticator with operations in the U.S., U.K, Canada, Australia and Germany. According to a statement from eBay, “The acquisition is an extension of the ongoing collaboration between [itself] and Sneaker Con, which has been critical to powering eBay’s Authenticity Guarantee. The service, which eBay launched in October 2020, offers full vetting and verification of select sneakers bought on the marketplace by a team of Sneaker Con’s industry experts.”

Additionally, the marketplace stated that its “Authenticity Guarantee has significantly changed the way people buy and sell sneakers on [its site], as evidenced by quarter over quarter category growth. In just over a year, more than 1.55 million sneakers have been authenticated globally on eBay.”

November 2021 – Marque Luxury Raises $20 Million

Marque Luxury has secured $20 million in funding through an investment by Provident Capital Partners, the Irvine, California-based reseller announced on November 19, saying that the round “follows a period of tremendous growth for MARQUE Luxury, which has opened numerous re-commerce hubs in the United States and several hubs in Asia during the last year and has aggressive plans for future expansion.” The 4-year old company says it will use the new cash to “drive continued business expansion on an operational scale focused mainly in North America,” to “support its omnichannel strategy and allows [it] to generate business activity in the global market on a business-to-business and business-to-business-to-consumer basis.”

November 2021 – StockX Acquires Scout

In its first acquisition, StockX has bought up Scout, a leading developer of power seller tools that is already serving more than 10,000 sneaker resellers around the world. StockX says that the new technology will enable it to “ramp up inventory” – which is, of course, the lifeblood of resale platforms and the primary driver of consumer demand – thanks to Scout’s “best-in-class automation, inventory management, tracking and integration with marketplaces.” At the same time, StockX states that the move will help its marketplace sellers to “accelerate their businesses,” presumably a bid to attract sellers in an increasingly competitive resale market, where no shortage of other resale players have taken to focusing on pre-owned sneakers and streetwear.

In addition to onboarding Scout’s product, StockX confirmed that it will bring on the company’s team three co-founders and seven employees, who “bring their deep experience as sneaker resellers and developers of inventory,” as aims to scale seller business operations.

Detroit-based StockX, which revealed that it surpassed 6.5 million lifetime buyers and 1 million lifetime sellers in the first half of 2021, has been building out its initially sneaker-focused offerings since its founding in 2016 and expanding internationally. In the wake of its latest funding round, a Series E-1 round that closed in April 2021, the company boasts a valuation of $3.8 billion valuation.

October 2021 – Poshmark Acquires Suede One

In its first-ever buy-side move, Poshmark announced on October 13 that it has acquired Suede One, an authentication platform that “combines machine learning, computer vision and expert human review to virtually authenticate sneakers,” with Suede One’s team joining Poshmark effective immediately. According to Poshmark, the acquisition “will scale [its] authentication capabilities and accelerate momentum in high-growth secondhand categories, especially sneakers and luxury,” and reflects the secondhand marketplace’s focus on “strategic investments that drive continued platform innovation, accelerate growth in high-growth resale categories and enhance the user experience to attract and retain both buyers and sellers.”

Founded in 2020, Suede One “has built impressive capabilities in virtual authentication that will allow us to deliver tangible benefits to our community, scale our authentication services in a meaningful way, and accelerate our momentum in sneakers as well as luxury goods, two of the fastest-growing categories in the resale space,” according to Poshmark founder and CEO Manish Chandra.

In a release on Wednesday, Poshmark detailed Suede One’s process, revealing that “for popular sneakers such as Jordan 1s and Yeezy 350s, Suede One can automatically authenticate the majority of submissions with greater than 99 percent accuracy, based on internal testing. For other sneaker types, human experts review the submission with help from the company’s proprietary authenticator tool.”

September 2021 – Vestiaire Raises $209 Million in Venture Round

French resale company Vestiaire has raised 178 million euros ($209 million) in a September 22 venture round which included participation from two new investors, SoftBank Group Corp and Generation Investment Management, bringing its valuation to $1.7 billion dollars. To date, Vestiaire has raised $663.3 million, per CrunchBase.

September 2021 – Tradesy Raises $67 Million in Series D Round

Resale platform Tradesy has raised $67 million in a September 16 Series D round led by led by Foris Ventures, which is Kleiner Perkins head John Doerr’s family office. To date, the company has raised $200.7 million over a series of eight rounds, according to CrunchBase. 

September 2021 – Grailed Closes $60 Million Series B Round

Men’s fashion and streetwear-centric marketplace Grailed announced the closing of a $60 million Series B funding round on September 16, which was led by fellow resale player GOAT Group and with participation from Groupe Artémis, along with existing investors Thrive Capital and Index Ventures. 

August 2021 – Trove Raises $77.5 Million in Series D

Trove Recommerce, which partners with brands to create online platforms for them to sell used goods, raised $77.5 million in an August 25 Series D round, led by G2 Venture Partners. 

June 2021 – GOAT Raises $195 Million in Series F Funding Round

Online sneaker and apparel marketplace GOAT Group has raised $195 million in a new funding round, which has “more than doubled its valuation to $3.7 billion.” The round for the 6-year-old Los Angeles-based company, which boasts some 30 million customers across 170 countries, was led by Park West Asset Management, funds and accounts advised by T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc., Franklin Templeton, Adage Capital Management and Ulysses Management.

June 2021 – Etsy Acquires Depop for $1.62 Billion

In a quest to target Gen-Z consumers (i.e., those born between the late 1990s and the early 2010s), who are driving both social shopping and largescale pushes in sustainability, Etsy announced that it will acquire burgeoning British shopping app Depop for $1.62 billion. 

May 2021 – Treet Raises $2.8 Million in Seed Round

Reseller Treet – which powers brands to set up their own resale sites where buyers and sellers can list and find items – raised $2.8 million in a May 26 seed round with participation from Bling Capital, Matchstick Ventures, Techstars, BAM Ventures, BBG Ventures, Green Meadow, Interlace Ventures, V1.VC and Alante Capital.

May 2021 – Vinted Raises $303 Million in Series F Round

Vinted raised 250 million euros ($303 million) in a May 12 Series F round, the Vilnius, Lithuania-founded online resale platform announced. According to a release from Vinted, which got its start in 2008 and boasts some 45 million users, the company “operates in over 10 markets, and has become the largest online C2C marketplace in second-hand fashion across Europe,” and will use the funding from the latest EQT Growth-led round – one that values the resale upstart at $4.3 billion – to expand its operations in Europe and “new geographies,” ramp up its hiring, and improve user experience. 

April 2021 – StockX Raises $195 Million in Secondary Market Round

StockX announced the conclusion of a $195 million secondary tender offering on April 8, as well as an additional $60 million in Series E-1 primary shares, boosting the streetwear and sneaker platform’s December 2020 valuation of $2.8 billion by 35 percent, and bringing its total funding to $690 million.

March 2021 – Vestiaire Raises $216 Million in Series H

Kering and American investment firm Tiger Global Management led a March 1 Series H funding round that saw secondhand marketplace Vestiaire Collective bring in $216 million in funding, along with existing investors, including its CEO Max Bittner, Vogue’s parent company Condé Nast, and the Eurazeo Group, among others. The deal gives Paris-based Vestiaire “unicorn status” – i.e., puts a $1 billion-plus value on the privately-held company – and “ideally positions it for its next cycle of accelerated growth.” 

February 2021 – Reflaunt Raises $2.7 Million in Pre-Series A

Second-hand fashion platform Reflaunt raised $2.7 million dollars in a pre-Series A funding round from investors including former Jimmy Choo CEO Pierre Denis and Ganni founder and former CEO Nicolaj Reffstrup, among others, with an aim to “offer a variety of resale models to more leading global brands” and to allow consumers to resell pre-owned products “directly on the brands’ individual e-commerce platforms.” 

January 2021 – GOAT Welcomes “Strategic Investment” from Groupe Artemis

GOAT Group announced on January 19 that it would welcome a “strategic investment” from Groupe Artemis – the controlling shareholder of Kering – as it “continues its expansion in fashion apparel and new categories.” The undisclosed Artemis investment comes on the heels of a Series E round of $100 million announced in September 2020, which valued the company at $1.75 billion. 

Lanvin Group announced on Wednesday that it will go public, planning to list on the New York Stock Exchange (under the ticker symbol “LANV”) after it merges with special purpose acquisition company (“SPAC”) Primavera Capital Acquisition Corporation in a move to raise up to $544 million and nab a “pro forma enterprise value of $1.5 billion and a combined pro forma equity value of up to $1.9 billion.” In a statement, Lanvin Group, which rebranded from Fosun Fashion Group last fall, asserted that “through the business combination,” it is aiming “to catalyze growth” both from an acquisition perspective and as a result of “growth across Europe, North America, and Asia.” 

The news about the impending SPAC for Lanvin Group, which maintains majority stakes in Sergio Rossi, Wolford, Caruso, St. John, and of course, Lanvin, among other brands, follows from Perfect Corp revealing early this month that it will go public on the Nasdaq by merging with Provident Acquisition Corp in a deal expected to value the New Taipei City-based startup, which provides software to beauty and fashion companies, at upwards of $1 billion. Before that, Zegna Group made its stock market debut in December by merging with Investindustrial Acquisition Corp., in furtherance of a deal that gave a valuation of $3.1 billion. 

While SPACs are not novel way of raising capital, dating back to the 1990s, they have seen a marked rise in recent years. Last year, a “record” number of de-SPACing transactions were carried out, up from 248 in 2020 (and a total of $83.3 billion raised) to 613 in 2021. An alternative to the traditional initial public offering (“IPO”) process, which is a notoriously costly and time-consuming transaction, mergers with SPACs have been viewed as a quicker, more efficient, and more cost-effective way to go public for target companies, such as Lanvin Group, Perfect Corp, and Zegna Group, among others. 

“Despite the large number of SPACs competing for acquisition targets” in recent years, Akin Gump attorneys Kerry Berchem and Patricia Precel, state that many SPACs – which are essentially shell companies seeking to merge with private companies with the intention of taking them public – “have been able to find targets and close their de-SPAC transactions.” Nonetheless, they assert that SPACs appear to be facing obstacles in 2022, which could serve to tame such sweeping year-over-year growth when it comes to the number of SPAC transactions, as “there are still many SPACs competing for targets, including those with shorter time frames to complete a transaction, [and given that] the SEC may issue new rules governing SPACs aimed at preventing SPACs from evading investor protections associated with a traditional IPO.” 

Beyond that, there is the chance that litigation may sour such deals. Not merely a potential threat, SPAC-centric litigation has come into fruition by way of what Paul Weiss previously characterized in a client note as “a substantial number of lawsuits” that have been filed by SPAC shareholders, who are “contesting the terms of – or disclosures surrounding – de-SPAC merger transactions.”

The rise in SPAC-related litigation has resulted in only one substantive ruling, which came by way of the Delaware Court of Chancery in January 2022 (In re Multiplan Corp. Stockholder Litigation), in which the court denied a motion to dismiss, thereby, enabling the plaintiffs’ claims against the SPAC’s sponsor and its directors – namely, that the defendants breached their fiduciary duties by neglecting to disclose vital information in connection with the merger of Churchill Capital Corp. III (the SPAC) and Multiplan Inc. – to proceed. According to the court, Delaware’s entire fairness standard of review applies to a de-SPAC transaction challenged on the basis of misleading statements or omissions in the SPAC’s proxy statement.

Reflecting on the potential impacts of the court’s decision, Mayer Brown LLP partners John Ablan, Philip Brandes, and Brian Massengill stated in a note for Harvard Law School’s Forum on Corporate Governance that “although the court’s opinion is only a denial of a motion to dismiss and not a final ruling on the merits, it is an important development for SPACs and SPAC sponsors, directors and officers,” nonetheless. Among other things, “the court’s conclusions signal potential increased litigation risk for SPAC directors in connection with business combination transactions. “A very common feature of SPACs,” they state that “the differing incentives for Class A versus Class B stockholders may present an inherent conflict of interest requiring the application of the ‘entire fairness’ standard to a de-SPAC business combination transaction.” 

As for whether such headwinds in the space will deter future transactions, the recent trio of fashion deals, including the impending Lanvin SPAC, seems to suggest that more may still be to come even if the numbers are generally falling this year. “Only 24 SPAC mergers worth $28.3 billion have been announced so far this year, versus the 93 deals worth $233 billion in the first quarter of 2021,” per Reuters.

In light of “the scope of the MultiPlan ruling, and the novel application of traditional fiduciary duty principles in the SPAC contexts,” boards of directors that may be considering SPAC transactions may be proceeding with caution. According to Berchem and Precel, boards would be well served to “follow additional developments in the case, identify real and perceived conflicts in the oversight of any SPAC related transaction, give careful consideration to disclosures and risk factors, and consider obtaining a fairness opinion from a financial advisor if there are conflicts of interest among a SPAC’s directors.”

In terms of Lanvin Group’s plans in the wake of its merger with the SPAC, it is looking to super-charge the growth of its “uniquely positioned” brands in order to capture a greater share of the global luxury goods market, which it says is expected to reach $430 billion by 2025. With a “strong foundation” in Europe, and “nearly half of [its] revenue currently derived from EMEA,” the Group is looking to place “a strategic emphasis on realizing the brands’ untapped potential in both Asia and North America, where its brands are at an inflection point to achieve rapid and significant future growth.” Greater China accounted for just 14 percent of the Group’s global revenues in 2021, while the North American market contributed 33 percent, with more than half of that coming exclusively from St. John. 

Against this background, and given its “unparalleled access and track record in backing international consumer brands and powering their growth” in the fast-growing Asian market, and given that its brands “are also beginning to unalock the huge growth potential of the North American market by opening new retail stores, expanding e-commerce channels, and launching dedicated marketing and brand collaborations,” Lanvin Group claims that it is “well-positioned to capture the enormous growth potential driven by flourishing demand for luxury goods globally.” 

French resale company Vestiaire Collective announced its acquisition of Tradesy, a U.S. pioneer in the fashion resale industry, on Tuesday. The terms of the deal were not disclosed, but the companies said in a statement that by joining forces, they will “significantly increase the size and reach of their peer-to-peer marketplaces, to the direct benefit of their sellers and buyers.” The combined company will boast “a membership community of 23 million, a catalog of 5 million items and a Gross Merchandise Value exceeding $1 billion,” according to Vestiaire and Tradesy, which assert that customers and sellers, alike, will “significantly benefit from the companies’ alliance.”

“In recent years, Vestiaire Collective has grown at an accelerated pace in the U.S., which has become its largest market,” the company stated on Tuesday, noting that “in particular, since the beginning of 2022, [it] has been growing its U.S. Gross Merchandise Value at a 75 percent year-on-year rate.” As such, the move to consolidate Tradesy into its operations will undoubtedly help to expand Vestiaire’s footprint in the American market and to “unlock strategic local-to-local transactions.” In order to “best serve its expanded customer base and continue to position trust at the core of its business model,” Vestiaire says that it plans to open a new authentication center in the Los Angeles area (its fifth authentication center globally, and second in the U.S.).

The deal – the biggest acquisition in the space following Etsy snapping up Depop for $1.62 billion in June 2021 – comes as cash is flowing into the secondary market space (both from an investment and a consumption perspective) and in light of expected consolidations, as established players like Rebag, The RealReal, Vestiaire, StockX, and others fight for market share in the luxury resale space, which Bain & Co. valued at almost $40 billion as of the close of 2021, an increase of 65 percent from 2017. Bain projects that the preowned luxury market “can keep surging,” and continue to outpace the market for new products if brands address these issues.

Los Angeles-based Tradesy, which operates of an online peer-to-peer resale marketplace for buying and selling women’s fashion and accessories, raised $67 million in a Series D round in September 2021, which brought its total funding at the time to $145 million. Also in September, Vestiaire raised 178 million euros ($209 million) in a venture round that included participation from two new investors, SoftBank Group Corp and Generation Investment Management, bringing its valuation to $1.7 billion dollars, and its total funding to date to $663.3 million. Before that, in a round in March 2021 that was led by Gucci-owner Kering and American investment firm Tiger Global Management, Vestiaire brought in $216 million in funding, along with existing investors, including its CEO Max Bittner, Vogue’s parent company Condé Nast, and the Eurazeo Group, among others.

Maximilian Bittner, CEO of Vestiaire Collective, and Fanny Moizant, founder and President of Vestiaire Collective, will continue to serve in those roles for the combined company, while Tracy DiNunzio, founder and CEO of Tradesy, will become CEO of the combined U.S. operations.