What do Rolex, Cartier, Audemars Piguet, Jaeger-LeCoultre, Tag Heuer, and Patek Philippe have in common? Their watches benefit from a certain status and an esteemed geographic indication that comes with being made in Switzerland. After all, “It is no secret that Swiss products and services enjoy a great reputation both at home and abroad,” according to Swiss trademark attorney Milana Pantelic, who notes that the “Swiss made” reputation centers on “high quality, tradition, precision, luxury, high technology, innovation and reliability.”
That reputation and the goodwill associated with the “Swiss made” designation is derived, in large part, from the aforementioned watchmakers’ (and others’) enduring investment in “quality, tradition and durability,” Deloitte stated in its Swiss Watch Industry Study, with “the time-honored quality and tradition of Swiss watchmaking maintaining its importance” over decades (and even centuries in some cases), both from an initial point of sale perspective, and increasingly, in the pre-owned market, thereby, translating to striking demand and increasingly expensive price tags
While the Financial Times previously noted that “currency fluctuations and quality” – paired with “the growth of the pre-owned market, [which] has kept residual values high, giving brands the confidence to push up primary market prices” – are part of the reason for enduring price hikes in the Swiss watch market, there is another element is at play, too. In many cases, the stellar reputation enjoyed by Swiss watchmakers directly translates to a premium, thereby, bestowing upon them pricing power as a result of the coveted geographical indication. In other words, with consumers routinely showing a preference for certain products as a result of a specific geographic indication and exhibiting a willingness to pay more for those products, it is clear that such geography-specific designations confer real, added value for brand owners.
In terms of luxury goods, such as watches, in particular, the Swiss-made indication can lead to a 50 percent increase in value, according to the Swiss Federal Institute of International Property (“IPI”).
The “Swissnesss” Law
With that in mind, companies have not only looked to geographic indicators as a marketing and branding tool with the power to influence consumer patterns, command premium pricing, and generate trade and economic benefits, legislators have focused on how to protect these valuable designations in order to maintain their ability to act as unique indictors. “To better protect the ‘Swiss’ brand,” for instance, and “prevent misuse and maintain its long-term value,” the Swiss government implemented new legislation in January 2017 to provide clear rules for the registration and use of Swiss indications of source – from the word “Swiss” to Swiss symbols like the Swiss cross.
Those rules establish that in order for a watch (which is subject to additional requirements that other goods) to regarded as Swiss-made, the following conditions must be met: (1) its technical development has taken place in Switzerland (in the case of exclusively mechanical watches, at least the mechanical construction and prototyping of the watch as a whole; and in the case of watches that are not exclusively mechanical, at least the mechanical construction and prototyping of the watch as a whole, together with the conception of the printed circuit or circuits, the display and the software); (2) its movement is Swiss; (3) its movement has been cased up in Switzerland; (4) final inspection by the manufacturer took place in Switzerland; and (5) at least 60 percent of the manufacturing costs is generated in Switzerland.
Fast forward and the Swiss Federal Council evaluated the efficacy of the so-called “Swissness” legislation, revealing in a formal release in December 2020 that “the ‘Swiss’ brand is adequately protected” and routinely generates “more than Sfr1 billion ($1.13 billion) annually for the Swiss economy.” At the same time, the Federal Council found that there has been an overall decrease in the misuse of Swiss indications of source since the legislation was enacted back in 2017.
While the Council determined that based on the results of its examination, the legislation is “achieving its overall objective,” and thus, there is “no need for revision,” Pantelic asserted that “there is still a need for action and enforcement, particularly abroad.” She says that “it will be interesting to see to what extent enforcement is increased in the future” beyond the Swiss border, such as in China, where counterfeits and bad-faith trademark filings are prevalent.
Given that the “Swissness” legislation “can only be implemented in Switzerland to combat misuse [of the “Swiss” designation], and thus, is not applicable abroad,” the IPI says that it is “particularly difficult to enforce such protections” in countries, such as China. The IPI has noted, however, that it has had some success in fighting misuse of the “Swiss” brand in China, as “the Chinese Trademark Office consistently rejects applications that contain wrongful use of the Swiss cross or the word ‘Swiss’ as part of the trademark.” At the same time, the IP body notes that “the legal framework [in China] also allows for the confiscation and destruction of products which are wrongfully advertised as being ‘Swiss Made.’”
Still yet, Pantelic says that it will be striking to see how case law develops in this arena. since the Swissness legislation was adopted, only a relatively small number of decisions have been issued by the IPI, leaving practitioners to await future decisions on “Swissness,” including whether courts instances will uphold the IPI’s decisions.
One such non-luxury – but nonetheless, notable – example comes by way of Toblerone, whose owner Mondelez International made headlines early this year when it revealed that it would remove the image of the Matterhorn and specific “Swiss” references that were previously displayed on its product packaging. “For legal reasons, the changes we’re making to our manufacturing mean we need to adjust our packaging to comply with Swissness legislation,” a Mondelez spokesperson said in March. Among other things, the company said at the time that it “removed our Swissness claim from the front of the Toblerone pack and changed our description ‘of Switzerland’ to ‘established in.’’”
The issue: Mondelez has shifted part of its production for the chocolate from Switzerland to Slovakia as part of a cost-cutting move, thereby, invoking the tenets of the Swissness legislation.
As for the state of Swiss watches, the value of exports reached 24.8 billion Swiss francs ($27 billion) in 2022, a “record performance,” according to the Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry, benefiting “in broad terms from the strong demand for luxury products and the increase in global wealth.” And in a nod to the enduring appeal of Swiss designation more broadly, the watch group stated that luxury watches are not the only ones that have surged in demand; “‘Swiss made’ entry-level watches were also a resounding success and ended 2022 on a positive result.” For another take on Brand Switzerland, brand valuation firm Brand Finance recently revealed that Rolex, whose brand value rose by 28 percent to $10.7 billion from 2022 to 2023, is successful as a result of its ability to build “a legacy of exceptional product quality,” with this “combination of heritage, craftsmanship and reputation for excellence” serving as the “driving force behind the enduring brand strength of Swiss watchmakers” across the board.